SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is one of the many responsibilities that Content Producer’s like myself have. It involves writing content for Search Engines that utilizes a site’s key words, the words you want to focus on, in the most appropriate manner. In addition it’s about practicing good construction of pages.
SEO is not about spamming your URL on internet forums, though backlinks are useful, there are better ways to go about generating them, such as partnering with websites that have similar content or posting press releases online.
An example of good SEO is when the content of a page matches the heading of the subject and this in turn matches the title of the page. See below for an example:
<title>Baseball Cards | My Site Name</title>
<h 1>About Baseball Cards</h1>
<p>Baseball cards are great because, blah blah blah</p>
A recommended read on SEO is Google’s own guide on SEO (PDF)
SEO can be very time intensive, mostly because many sites do not construct their sites correctly and an SEO company or specialist has to go in, analyze their content for key words, evaluate what the site is trying to accomplish and ultimately rewrite much of their content. In addition, they then have to move onto the next phase of creating releases and developing a periodic schedule for updates, content changes and new releases to keep the site fresh and continually crawled.